Thursday, March 31, 2011

Ugandan protesters in support of Libyan President Moammar Gadhafi

Ugandan protesters shout slogans in support of Libyan President Moammar Gadhafi as they display banners with his image, at the Pan African Freedom Square in Uganda capital Kampala, Tuesday March 29, 2011.

 

A woman shouts slogans in support of Libyan President Moammar Gadhafi as she carries his photo, at the Pan African Freedom Square, in Uganda capital Kampala Tuesday March 29, 2011. Police in Uganda say they stopped supporters of Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi from marching toward and possibly attacking U.S. and other embassies in Kampala. A group of several hundred Africans from countries like Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania held an anti-U.S. rally where they held signs like "Down with America" and "Down with Obama." (AP Photo/Stephen Wandera)

 

 

 

A man holding a placard shouts slogans in support of Libyan President Moammar Gadhafi, at the Pan African Freedom Square, in Uganda capital Kampala Tuesday March 29, 2011. Police in Uganda say they stopped supporters of Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi from marching toward and possibly attacking U.S. and other embassies in Kampala. A group of several hundred Africans from countries like Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania held an anti-U.S. rally where they held signs like "Down with America" and "Down with Obama." (AP Photo/Stephen Wandera)

Republic of Angola: The History – All about

History

The area was inhabited in prehistoric times, as attested by remains found in Luanda, Congo and the Namibe desert, but it was only thousands of years later, at the beginning of recorded history that more developed peoples arrived.

The first to settle were the Bushmen, great hunters, similar to pygmies in stature and with light brown skin. At the beginning of the sixth century AD, more advanced peoples with black skin, already in possession of metal-working technology, began one of the greatest migrations in history. They were the Bantu, and they came from the north, probably from somewhere near the present day Republic of Cameroon. When they reached what is now Angola they encountered the Bushmen and other groups considerably less advanced than themselves, who they easily dominated with their superior knowledge of metal-working, ceramic and agriculture. The establishment of the Bantu took many centuries and gave rise to various groupings who took on different ethnic characteristics, some of which persist to this day. The first large political entity in the area, known to history as the Kingdom of Congo, appeared in the thirteenth century and stretched from Gabon in the north to the river Kwanza in the south, and from the Atlantic in the west to the river Cuango in the east.

Their wealth came mainly from agriculture. Power was in the hands of the Mani, aristocrats who occupied key positions in the kingdom and who answered only to the all-powerful King of the Congo. Mbanza was the name given to a territorial unit administered and ruled by a Mani; Mbanza Congo, the capital, had a population of over fifty thousand in the sixteenth century.

The Kingdom of Congo was divided into six provinces and included some dependent kingdoms, such as Ndongo to the south. Trade was the main activity, based on highly productive agriculture and increasing exploitation of mineral wealth. In 1482, Portuguese caravels commanded by Diogo Cão arrived in the Congo. Other expeditions followed, and close relations were soon established between the two states. The Portuguese brought firearms and an interesting religion; in return, the King of the Congo could offer slaves, ivory, and minerals.

The King of the Congo was soon converted to Christianity, and adopted a similar political structure to the Europeans; he became a well-known figure in Europe, to the point of receiving missives from the Pope himself.

To the south of the Kingdom of the Congo, around the river Kwanza, there were various important states, of which the Kingdom of Ndongo, ruled by the Ngola (King), was the most significant. At the time of the arrival of the Portuguese, Ngola Kiluange was in power, and by maintaining a policy of alliances with neighbouring states, managed to hold out against the foreigners for several decades. Eventually he was beheaded in Luanda. Years later, the Ndongo rose to prominence again when Jinga Mbandi, known as Queen Jinga, took power. A wily politician, she kept the Portuguese in check with carefully-prepared agreements. After undertaking various journeys she succeeded in 1635 in forming a grand coalition with the states of Matamba and Ndongo, Congo, Kassanje, Dembos and Kissamas. At the head of this formidable alliance, she forced the Portuguese to retreat.

Meanwhile, Portugal had been occupied by Spain, and their overseas territories had taken second place. The Dutch took advantage of this situation and occupied Luanda in 1641. Jinga entered into an alliance with the Dutch, thereby strengthening her coalition and confining the Portuguese to Massangano, which they fortified strongly, sallying forth on occasion to capture slaves in the Kuata! Kuata! Wars. Slaves from Angola were essential to the development of the colony of Brazil, but the traffic had been interrupted by these events. In 1648 a large force from Brazil under the command of Salvador Correia de Sá retook Luanda, leading to the return of the Portuguese in large numbers.

Jinga’s coalition began to fall apart; the absence of their Dutch allies with their firearms, and the strong position of Correia de Sá, delivered a deadly blow to the morale of the native forces. Jinga died in 1663; two years later, the King of the Congo committed all his forces to an attempt to capture the island of Luanda, occupied by Correia de Sá, but they were defeated and lost their independence. The Kingdom of Ndongo likewise submitted to the Portuguese Crown in 1671.

The Portuguese colony of Angola was founded in 1575 with the arrival of Novais with a hundred families of colonist and four hundred soldiers. Luanda was granted the status of city in 1605.

Trade was mostly with Brazil; Brazilian ships were the most numerous in the ports of Luanda and Benguela.

Angola, a Portuguese colony, was in fact a colony of Brazil, paradoxically another Portuguese colony. A strong Brazilian influence was also exercised by the Jesuits in religion and education. The philosophy of war gradually gave way to the philosophy of trade. The great trade routes and the agreements that made them possible were the driving force for activities between the different areas; warlike states become states ready to produce and to sell. In the Planalto (the high plains), the most important states were those of Bié and Bailundo, the latter being noted for its production so foodstuffs and rubber. However, the colonial power, becoming ever richer and more powerful, would not tolerate the development of these states and subjugated them one by one, so that by the beginning of this century the Portuguese had complete control over the area.

From 1764 onwards, there was a gradual change from a slave-based society to one based on production for domestic consumption. By 1850 Luanda was a great city, full of trading companies, exporting (together with Benguela) palm and peanut oil, wax, copal, timber, ivory, cotton, coffee, and cocoa, among other products. Maize, tobacco, dried meat and cassava flour also began to be produced locally. The Angolan bourgeoisie was born.

Meanwhile, the slave trade was abolished in 1836, and in 1844 Angola’s ports were opened to foreign shipping.

The Berlin Conference compelled Portugal to move towards the immediate occupation of all its colonial territories. The territory of Cabinda, to the north of the river Zaire, was also ceded to Portugal on the legal basis of the Treat y of Simulambuko Protectorate, concluded between the Portuguese Crown and the princes of Cabinda in 1885. After a difficult and complicated process of implementation, the end of the nineteenth century saw the establishment of a colonial administration based directly on the territory and the people to be ruled.

With regard to the economy, colonial strategy was based on agriculture and the export of raw materials. Trade in rubber and ivory, together with the taxes imposed on the population, brought vast income to Lisbon.
Portuguese policy in Angola was modified by certain reforms introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. The fall of the Portuguese monarchy and a favourable international climate led to reforms in administration, agriculture, and education. With the advent of the New State, extended to the colony, Angola becomes a province of Portugal (Ultramarine Province).

The situation appeared calm and stable. But in the second half of the twentieth century, this calm was disrupted by the appearance of the first nationalist movements. More overtly political organisations first appeared in the 1950s, and began to make organised demands for their rights, initiating diplomatic campaigns throughout the world in their fight for independence. The colonial power, meanwhile, refused to accede to the nationalist’s demands, thereby provoking the armed conflict that came to be known as the ‘Armed Struggle’.

In this struggle, the principal protagonist were the MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola), founded in 1956, the FNLA (National Front for The Liberation of Angola), which appeared in 1961, and UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola), founded in 1966. After many years of conflict, the nation gained its independence on 11 November 1975.

Republic of Angola: Geography – All about

Geography

Located on the West coast of Southern Africa, Angola was under colonial rule until November 11, 1975, date on which it became an independent nation. It extends over an area of 1,246,700 Km2.

The country is divided into 18 provinces, being Luanda the capital. With a total of 4,837 Km long borderline, Angola is bordered with Congo-Brazzaville at the Northern province of Cabinda, the Democratic Republic of Congo (former Zaïre) to the North and East, Zambia to the East, and Namibia to the South.

Angola has an Atlantic Ocean coastline of 1,650 Km long. The country’s major ports include Luanda, Lobito, and Namibe. The country’s highest peak is Mount Moco, 2,620 m high, located in Huambo province. With a privileged continental hydrographic system, Angola’s main rivers are Kwanza, Záire, Cunene, and Cubango. Kwanza (Kz) is national currency.

Statistics

Population: 11,177,537 (July 1999 est.)

Hope of Life: Men 45 years; Women 48 years

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 2,545,006; female 2,473,732)
15-64 years: 52% (male 2,938,178; female 2,909,844)
65 years and over: 3% (male 143,074; female 167,703) (1999 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.84% (1999 est.)

Birth rate: 43.11 births/1,000 Population (1999 est.)

Death rate: 16.35 deaths/1,000 Population (1999 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.6 migrants)/1,000 Population (1999 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 males)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 males)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 males)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 males)/female
total Population: 1.01 males)/female (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Angolans
adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total Population: 42%
male: 56%
female: 28% ((1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 129.19 deaths/1,000 live births (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total Population: 48.39 years
male: 46.08 years
female: 50.82 years (1999 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.12 children born/woman (1999 est.)

Useful information

Airports: Angola has an excellent airport system covering the entire country. The system is open to international traffic through 4 de Fevereiro International Airport in Luanda.

Customs: Upon arrival at Luanda, the passenger may choose either the green route, if he or she has nothing to declare, or the red route, if he or she carries items subject to customs fees. Items for personal effects are tax free.
Health: A vaccination certificate for yellow fever is required to enter the country. Well equipped clinics are available for visitors requiring immediate health care.
Driver’s License: An international and local driver’s license is required to drive in the country.

Languages: Portuguese is the official language
Visa Info: Visas To enter Angola visitors must obtain a visa at the country of origin’s Angolan consular office. A passport size picture, a valid passport, and a completed application form must be submitted.
Telephones: A land system operator and two cellular phone operators exist in the country, enabling easy domestic and international calls.
Time: The time, GMT/UTC, is unchanged throughout the year.

Look 88 extreme Advs; Best Controversial and Disturbing Print Ads on 2011

Warning: Viewers Discretion Is Advised!

Extreme Advertisements
Image from: Squid

While some might find them somewhat perverse yet creatively brilliant, others might cringe and be disgusted or disapproving of their content or style. Everyone has a right to an opinion.

80 Controversial and Disturbing Print Ads

Let’s look at these advertisements objectively with an open and analytical mind and appreciate the creativity that went into it. One has to wonder how the creative directors and designers came up with these concepts. What was the thought process and rational behind their radical ideas? Was there prior censorship and surveying done in a control group before the decision to go ahead with the advert was made? No matter the response, such advertisements do exist and are on the rise. Does challenging the norm by being controversial and extreme payoff by leaving an impact or making an impression on viewers? This is an answer we’d love to find out.

Here are 80 controversial advertisements that challenge the boundaries of what is socially and morally acceptable with the use of dark humour and shock tactics. These print advertisements often use gore, vulgarity, sex, violence, and sometimes religion to promote their products or bring across the organisations’ message. These adverts either challenge social, political or moral propriety. That is why some of these advertisements are banned in certain countries. Although the use of such adverts can be effective, it is not for the faint of heart or small of mind. Not everyone can appreciate the beauty in such clever and deliberate ugliness.

Just liquid hand wash: Cockroaches
Liquid Handwash

Ariel: Pervert
Ariel

Amnesty International: Archery
Archery

AMAM - Association of Women Against Genital Mutilation: Plastic doll
Amam

Alka-Seltzer: New Year
Alka Seltzer

Alac: Kitchen
Alac

Ace: Tarantula
Ace

A Bela Sintra: Foot
A Bela Sintra Foot

WWF: Blood
WWF

Amnesty International: Red Little Tender
Violence Against Women

Vergessen ist ansteckend: Tub
Vergessen

TMF: Army
TMF

Queer Travel.de
The Other Side of America

Superette: Elevator
Superette

AIDS Awareness Campaign: Gay
Stop Aids

Stella Coffee Pot: Spider
Stella

SPID Advertising
Spid Advertising

Solid Paint: Cross
Solid

Skins: Defy Genetics
Skin Defy

Shared Responsibility: Kidnapping
Shared Responsibility

Semorin: Mustard
Semorin

Save the Children: Child Labour
Save The Children

Sanctuary, Save the tiger: Binocular
Sanctuary

RSPCA: Woman
Rspca

Pedestrian Council of Australia: Family
Road Safety Australia

Popeye Detergent Hipoalergenic: Hell raiser
Popeye

Pastorini Toy Store
Pastorini Toy Store

Oust: Everything has consequences
Oust

Nycomed: Agony
Nycomed

Cerveira Art Biennial: Botticelli
New Artist

Pet flea & tick spot on: Haircut
Never Keep a Parasite

MTV: Shot, Girl
MTV

Multiple Sclerosis Australia: Use By Dates
MS

Masterlock: Hippes
Masterlock

Lung cancer awareness: One
Lung Cancer

Love Life Stop Aids: Space
Love Life

Glassing Sunglasses: Kiss my glass
Kiss My Glass

Ariel Plus: Ketchup
Ketchup

RSF: Ink
Ink Flow

IndyAct: Bobcat
Indyact

Workplace Safety Insurance Board: Sign
Ignoring Safety

Colombian Association of Arterial Hypertension: Home
Hypertension

Humans for Animals: Seal
Human for Animals

Gringo’s Tequila: El Matador Peligroso
Gringos

Fur Free: Angry Fox
Fur Fury

Findus Fraich'Frites
Fraich Frites

Foundation Abbé Pierre: The Lifeguard
First Aid

Filigranes Bookstore: Las Vegas
Filigranes Bookstore

Procter & Gamble / Febreze: Fly
Febreze

Fashion Outlet Zurich: Cow
Fashion Outlet

Family Network Foundation: Dad
Family Network Foundation

Ramorama: Expose Yourself
Expose Yourself

Emirates Arthritis Foundation: Painful
Emirates Arthritis

Government of the State of Santa Catarina: Hamburger
Don't Swallow Smoke

Mettiamocilatesta.it
Don't Cut a Dream

13th Street
Crime Night

Concordia Children’s Services: Piglets
Concordia

E.N.P.A: Spray
Cosmetic Testing

Colin glass cleaner: Spider
Colin

NoButts.org Anti-Cigarette Butt Pollution Campaign: Catfish
Cigarette Butts Pollution

Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers: England
Child Soldiers

Child Health Foundation: The Scream
Child Abuse

Casa Do Menor: Hands
Casa Do Menor

Casa & Perfume air freshener: Fish
Casa

Caribu Bitter: Poison
Caribu Poison

Caribu Bitter: Canari
Caribu

Canex: Spaniel
Canex

Eagle Print Awards 2009: Cactus
Cactus

NSW Health
Binge Driving

Aware Helpline: Verbal abuse
Aware

Ashtraymouth: Roach girl
Ashtray Mouth

Vancouver Aquarium
Vancouver

YouthSPK
Youth Spk

One Life Shower
One Life

Domestic Violence: Piece of meat
Meat

The Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation
Lung Cancer Foundation

Good Parent
Good Parent

Domestic Violence: Living Room
Domestic Violence

Descriminatie.nl
Discriminatie

Karabine
Karabine

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